Elements of Literature Fifth Course
LE0 11-9.2
Spirituals and Code Songs by Frederick Douglass
Crossing the Curriculum: History
In 1867, The Atlantic Monthly published T. W. Higginson’s “Negro Spirituals.” The article included lyrics to thirty-seven spirituals, more than had ever before been printed in one place. Visit the University of Virginia to find Higginson’s article, along with an Index of Spiritual Titles. Reflect awhile on the sorrowful songs, then read on to learn what Higginson made of it all.
American Slave Narratives: An Online Anthology
In the 1930s, over 2,300 former slaves were interviewed in the United States. Bruce Fort of the University of Virginia has collected many of these interviews. Visit American Slave Narratives: An Online Anthology, and click Sound Files. Listen as Fountain Hughes recalls Yankee soldiers stealing food and remembers his first days of emancipation.
Crossing the Curriculum: Music
What You Can’t Learn in a Book
You’ve read about slavery in America, so now get ready to close your eyes and learn something you can’t read in a book. From field hollers to tie-tamping chants, tune in to the heartfelt sounds captured by John and Ruby Lomax in their field recordings from 1939, available online at the Library of Congress American Folklife Center.
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